I’m just giving you sort of a sample of that, but the Pew Research Group has polls if you’re interested in looking at the Pew polls, a lot of them deal with race. Gallup reported in the last year to a 20% rise in liberalism among white Democrats. Russian serfs got three acres of land and farm implements to work that land, and 4 million Blacks were cast out with nothing, with no way to make a living at all. Many had been very silent about this, and their kids and grandkids knew very little about it. Fax: 304-263-6092, Prosecuting Attorney And we saw, in the last several months, presidential candidate support for reparations, from Marianne Williams saying, “I’ll pay the money now,” to Joe Biden saying, “Oh, well, I think this is something that we could study.” So, the consequence of that is, and I won’t talk about it and you’ve probably seen it, is the California Commission Bill that’s just been signed by the governor. What do you think is the strength and weaknesses of that approach? I hope I got you curious enough that you’ll want to look at something in more depth, and each of these works looks at different aspects of reparation, so they’re not totally repetitive. That paycheck stops and they’re on the street, they’re homeless and we see that in a disproportionate number of Blacks in the homeless population. In 1994, President Clinton appointed him to the National Council on the Humanities for a six-year term. Professor Henry will be talking about the case for reparations, and the current movement for providing reparations to the descendants of former U.S. slaves. So let me briefly talk about this, I want to try to talk for maybe 30 or 35 minutes right now, and then leave you time to ask some questions and for me to try to answer them. I’m going to have to start moving faster than usual. Veterans Day is an official United States Federal holiday that honors people who have served in the U.S. Armed Forces, also known as veterans.. The reason that legal cases have had problems historically in the United States, in terms of winning reparations, are three major, I think. In 1917, there was violence in places like East St. Louis, Illinois. The basic point is that this shift in public opinion to the left then has prepared more favorable ground for reparations claims, and we see that reflected in some recent successes in reparations. A very significant case, because it relates to the Black Lives Matter movement and others, is that the Chicago City Council agreed to pay reparations to victims of police torture in a particular precinct in Chicago. And so with that, I would like to turn it over to Professor Charles Henry. John Lehman So, if you’re able to close that wealth gap, it gives you the resources to survive pandemics when you’re not employed or you’re not getting your paycheck, kids who can’t afford their apartments can come home and stay with parents who are in a house that has their mortgage paid, etc. If we look at textbooks in places like Texas, for example, you wouldn’t recognize Tulsa or Rosewood. Around a dozen citizens planned to voice their concerns over how the Berkeley County Council handled the replacement of two elected positions — Elaine Mauck’s appointment to fill the unexpired term of County Clerk John W. Small Jr., and Dan Dulyea’s appointment to the county council seat Mauck vacated in taking her new role. The police come and they arrest Roland at his adopted mother’s home and the Tulsa Tribune, the major paper, runs a front-page story that afternoon entitled “Nab Negro For Attacking Girl In Elevator,” and then also, some residents recall an editorial entitled “To Lynch a Negro Tonight,” and so, after the word of the lynching came out through the newspaper, it spread like wildfire. 40 and most of the presidential candidates ��� Cory Booker, Kamala Harris, Bernie Sanders, Elizabeth Warren, those in the Senate ��� had signed on as co-sponsors of that legislation. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! I saw a piece, a brief snippet, in the San Francisco Chronicle just yesterday on Tulsa, saying they had found 10 bodies in an unmarked grave in a cemetery in Tulsa that they think were people who had been killed during the Tulsa Massacre of 1921, and those bodies had not been counted in that. So, she’s a kind of link between this generation of Callie House and Reverend Dickerson and the people that we’ll talk about in the 1960s, in the mid-20th century. This has been wonderful, it’s so appreciative of Professor Henry for sharing his time with us today, and thank you for joining us for this latest offering in the America’s Unfinished Work series with OLLI. The internment of Japanese Americans had not been talked about by the generation, by the parents. DACA recipient Luis Alejandro Liang, the first student profiled in the brand new Berkeley Haas first-person series called “Haas Voices,” talks about his road to UC Berkeley — from being raised in Sinaloa, Mexico, to his move at age 14 to Orange County with his mother and sisters to a tour of UC campuses as a community college student where he fell in love with Berkeley. While they’re in their camps, their homes are looted and burned. Yeah, but we’ve been doing it at the national level for 30 years, and California legislature is more liberal than the state legislature at this point because we don’t have a Senate like we do in Washington, and so maybe California can be a model for how this can be done, so let’s not put all our eggs in one basket. One of the people that grew up in the Marcus Garvey Organization was a woman called Audley Moore and she would later develop one of the mid-20th-century Black reparations groups that would take the claim for reparations to the UN among others in 1950. Kevin Watson It had simply been erased from history. Second, there was no organized Black Caucus in the Oklahoma legislature as there was in the Florida legislature, and most importantly, there was no Hispanic Caucus in the Oklahoma legislature. Copyright 짤 2021 UC Regents; all rights reserved. Yet, in the last couple of years, we’ve seen an upsurge of not just interest, but actual actions towards reparations. In all honesty, I’ve often doubted that we as a country would get to the point where reparations to African Americans could be part of our mainstream conversation. Dominic S. Orsini, Martinsburg City Police If you could just very briefly speak to that? TRAVEL ALERT: Berkeley International Office (BIO) strongly discourages travel due to the changing nature of U.S. immigration policy and the COVID-19 pandemic and its impacts to global travel. Most reparations discussions I see want to affect the wealth gap in the United States, which ranges from, the California Bill quotes a figure of, Blacks have one-sixteenth the wealth of whites. Berkeley Count Sheriff Department Therefore, the best that they got out of the Tulsa… Both of these had study commissions, there were financial reparations in Rosewood, the survivors in Tulsa got medals, no financial compensation, okay? There was no sophisticated lobby in the case of Tulsa, there was in the case of Rosewood, in that they were successful in getting a white lawyer who was a lobbyist, who agreed to take on the Rosewood case and was skillful in taking it through the state legislature, and there was a dispute mechanism to handle a claim like this in the case of the Florida legislature. So, one of the things you’ve noted is just how poorly the legal system is equipped to collective redress, and particularly we’re talking about historical harms. Several universities have acknowledged how slavery was central to the development as institutions. Sandra Bass: Yeah, it’s another question that’s related to Isabel Wilkerson’s latest book, Caste, which I think is really important, and I’ll just share one of the questions I’ve often wondered is, if in some possible world reparations did happen, is that sort of a way of brushing off the question of the systemic challenges that Black Americans have faced from slavery on in multiple ways? Okay, I’m not doing well, so I’m not going to elaborate on the details on this, other than to say Rosewood’s claim for reparations was successful, Tulsa’s was not. So, these can be seen as a type of economic reparations. Engle, age 30, was the co-owner of Hearts2Heros, a for-profit entity that allegedly was meant to support the military by creating and sending care packages to deployed service members. So, this is a turnaround in public opinion. Then, we get to the contemporary period. Kate B. Harding It didn’t include a positive vision of a multicultural, equal and just society of people living together. But you see this shift in public opinion and just to cite a few things, the Kaiser CNN poll, a recent Kaiser CNN poll, a few years ago, found that racial tensions were worse today than there were 20 years ago. What are some of the factors? Chief Deputy Jeremy Baker with the Berkeley County … Page screamed, and as Rowland hurried away, a clothing store clerk spotted him. For one particular reason, in 1988, Japanese Americans received an apology and reparations for the internment of Japanese Americans in the United States. Blacks were largely excluded from that, I think 1.6 million whites benefit from this, 4,000 Blacks got land. Address Information Department. He was the former president of the National Council for Black Studies and the author or editor of eight books and more than 80 articles and reviews on Black politics, public policy and human rights. I believe of the $500 million, $5 million is actually paid to the churches, to various organizations, during that period. Professor Henry was Distinguished Fulbright Chair in American History and Politics at the University of Bologna in Italy and also was one of the first two Fulbright-Tocqueville Distinguished Chairs in France teaching at the University of Tours, I hope I pronounced that correctly, and Chancellor Birgeneau also presented Henry with the Chancellors Award for Advancing Institutional Excellence in April 2008. I kind of date the contemporary period from 1989, there were things going on all throughout these periods but they’re kind of signal events like the end of the Civil War, like the development of pension movement, like the Civil Rights Movement, and I think we can kind of date the contemporary period from 1989. Incidentally, there’s a large number of victims of forced sterilizations in California, as well. Berkeley’s hands are not clean on this, if you want to talk a little bit about that later. This has obviously become a more of an obstacle in recent years around police brutality issues and the immunity, it’s been called qualified immunity that police officers have, but in general it’s very difficult to sue a city or a state and in some cases, you can be given permission to sue. Cheryl Saville In addition, our Berkeley Heights Health Department officials – who are also with Union County – may still need to talk to you. And so, the question is, what can reparations do to address this inequity and change the system? I’ve seen other figures that say one-tenth the wealth, but a sort of one-time cash payment of a few thousand dollars really doesn’t close that wealth gap at all. So, you’re not actually giving redress to the person who is harmed, which means that with regards to national reparations, we’re beholden to a political context. Many of the people that had been put in these camps had felt ashamed about it and that was why they didn’t talk about it, and so there was a kind of catharsis that was a result of this process of talking about this history. If they were there at all, it would be a totally different perspective, it was like if you read the white newspapers after Tulsa and the Black newspapers, it was like people were in two different universes. Starting Monday, January 11, the Berkeley County Courthouse will operate on a modified schedule until further order from the Supreme Court. Garrett Robertson All visitors, litigants and attorneys will be permitted only to enter by appointment or scheduled hearing. An update from Chancellor Christ on two UC... Dacher Keltner on the science of awe and... Binary stars are all around us, new map of solar... COVID-19 and the media: The role of journalism in a global pandemic, Subscribe to The Berkeleyan, our weekly email newsletter, The latest information on how UC Berkeley is responding to coronavirus. Charles Henry: Give me two minutes, and then I’m done. We’ve had two or three books on presidents’ racial views from that period on out to the current period, which showed that up through Reagan, I haven’t seen any in the last decade or so, but up through Reagan, they all had problems with race, which may help explain why then reparations has been such a controversial issue in our history. They wanted to be able to work independently and make a living, and consequently, we get the figure of 40 acres. I’ll tell you, as an African American woman in graduate school in the ’90s in a discipline that has struggled with diversity and inclusion, having such a thoughtful and supportive ally was the difference between finishing my program and choosing to walk away. It was assumed to be taken care of, or other things would solve that problem. It was the first sort of large mass organization of Blacks petitioning Congress for some sort of pensions and medical care, etc. As he got on the elevator, he apparently tripped and grabbed the arm of a 17-year-old Sarah Page, the white elevator operator, to balance himself. On May 30th, 1921, Dick Rowland, a bootblack, took the elevator to the colored restroom in the office building near the shine parlor where he worked. At the beginning of the Obama administration, for example, in 2008, things were pretty hopeful. Thank you so much. The Black Panther party, which adopts a 10-point program also, in some ways mirroring what the Black Muslim said, but in a secular way in what they consider a more progressive way, in that it’s not calling for separate land from whites, but it’s calling for land, housing, jobs, food, but land is a part of the Panther demands. In the most immediate post-Civil War period, it’s land. This is from James Baldwin: “People who imagine that history flatters them (as it does indeed, since they wrote it) are impaled on their history like a butterfly on a pin and become incapable of seeing or changing themselves or the world. Charles Henry: Yeah, I’m going to give you the triggering incident in both cases. www.martinsburgpd.org So obviously I’m going to cut out a lot that I would normally want to talk about if this were a full-length course or a long lecture. The final thing is a list for further reading. The Gwinnett County Clerk of Superior Court Richard T. Alexander, Jr., is asking all veterans of all military branches of service to make sure their DD-214 is recorded at the courthouse. The sheriff said he didn’t need them and they leave, and then whites sort of descend on the jail and Blacks come back to the jail and offer their assistance again, it’s refused. 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